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Intermediate – Middle School
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Indigenous Peoples and Twentieth-Century Canadian Military History

This list of resources has been compiled to further students’ knowledge of Indigenous contributions to Canadian military history. Students can read and listen to the articles and testimonies to learn more about the reasons Indigenous people joined the Canadian military, their achievements and challenges while serving, and their experiences following their service.

Teachers are encouraged to preview the testimonies before assigning them, as stories of war often include graphic content.

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The Cenotaph Project

The Cenotaph Project is an engaging activity that gives students an opportunity to get to know the individual men and women who served, and potentially died, in wartime. Begun by Ontario teacher Blake Seward, teachers and students nationwide have undertaken this project. The document below serves as a step-by-step guide.
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Second World War Education Guide

This guide is intended to assist teachers and students as they study Canada’s involvement in the Second World War. It highlights some of the significant historical themes and events of that period but is not meant to be a comprehensive history of Canada and the war; in fact, some teachers may choose to highlight different aspects of this period in their classes, such as the naval war on Canada’s doorstep or Canada’s participation in the bombing offensive against Germany. Nonetheless, the...

Remembrance Day: Memories, Letters, Sacrifice


Students should:
- Know that democracy depends on the participation of the citizens
- Participate appropriately and effectively in groups
- Research for specific information
- Demonstrate an attitude of acceptance of diverse values
- Read, view and listen effectively to gather ideas and information
- Classify and present pertinent information in logical order.

Students should be able to :
- Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow
- Explain personal viewpoint clearly

Reflecting on Responsibility


This lesson will introduce the students to the role of the stretcher bearer in the First World War. Often it is the soldier in the trench who is remembered for his bravery and duty, risking his life for hiscountry. It is important to remember that in war, as in society, there are other roles, such as the stretcher bearers, who also have an important responsibility. These cannot be overlooked. Students will explore and discover the experiences of the stretcher bearer through poetry,...

First World War Newspaper


Students create a newspaper, from a distinct perspective, that exemplifies an event of the First World War. This project can be modified to the Second World War. The full assignment is attached below.


Students will gain a greater understanding and appreciation of a specific aspect of the Great War. Students will gain competence is print presentation methods. Other goals can be added to this project to meet specific teacher's needs and curricular outcomes.


This project...

Fighting the First World War


This lesson will introduce students the following issues and questions:

1. Why was the war so brutal?
2. Why did Canadians want to fight?
3. Literature during the First World War
4. Was the war a needless or necessary sacrifice?


To make students think about the issues that face soldiers and officers during the war. Students will be encouraged to examine the content from a contemporary perspective instead of their own post-modern perspective.


The background is established...

Canadian Internment Camps During the First World War


The beginning stages of the First World War saw increasing suspicion by the Canadian populace of immigrants from Germany and Eastern Europe, particularly Ukrainians, Austrians, Poles, Czechs and Slovaks. Over 80,000 immigrants from these nations were forced to carry special identity cards and report for regular interviews with local authorities. Further, 8,579 "enemy aliens" (5,000 of which who were of Ukrainian origin) were interned in twenty-four detention camps during the course...

Dialogue on Dieppe


Create a fictitious on-line discussion group between generals who were involved in the planning of The Dieppe Raid, 1942. Using a computer program, students will create a fictitious "Facebook" Discussion between the two leading Generals of The Dieppe Raid- Louis Mountbatten, Chief of Combined Operations, and Major-General J. H. Roberts, 2nd Canadian Infantry Division.


To help students understand what factors -personal and political- motivate generals in times of war



Choosing a National First World War Monument


Which of the eight First World War battlefield memorial sites awarded to Canada would be the best location for a monument to express the national identity and role of Canada in the war?


Appreciate how the forces of nationalism have shaped and continue to shape Canada and the world.

Explore a range of expressions of nationalism.

Appreciate historical and contemporary attempts to develop a national identity.

Analyze methods used by individuals, groups and governments in Canada to...

Battles of the First World War: Research Project


Though our nation came together in 1867 due to numerous factors, both internal and external, many have argued that Canada floated along without a truly recognizable identity until the First World War. It was during this period in history and through blood and sacrifice at home and overseas that Canada forged itself into the nation we identify with today. The knowledge of our contributions throughout the course of the First World War is essential to the understanding of our national ‘...

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